Case Studies and Other Resources

Case studies are descriptions of alternative or chemical hazard assessments that have been conducted by manufacturers, academic institutions, NGOs or government bodies. Case studies are categorized by the type of assessment: chemical hazard assessment and alternatives assessment. An evaluation that includes not only a chemical hazard assessment, but also addresses cost/benefit, exposure, life cycle, materials management, social and/or technical feasibility is classified as an alternatives assessment.

Type Chemical Class/Company Profile Topics Covered Organization Title
Chemical Hazard AssessmentNanomaterialsTitanium tetrachlorideAmerican Industrial Hygiene AssociationAlteration of manufacturing processes to reduce exposure to titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4)
Alternatives AssessmentCompany profileCompilation of descriptions of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsBizNGOA compilation of case studies
Alternatives AssessmentCompany profileCompilation of descriptions of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsClean Production ActionA compilation of case studies from Clean Production Action
Alternatives AssessmentCompany profileDescription of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsGreen Chemistry & Commerce Council (GC3)Considered Chemistry at Nike: Creating Safer Products Through the Evaluation and Restriction of Hazardous Chemicals
Chemical Hazard AssessmentCompany profileDescription of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsGreen Chemistry & Commerce Council (GC3)S.C. Johnson is Transforming its Supply Chain to Create Products that are Better for the Environment
Alternatives AssessmentPhthalatesPVC, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)Healthcare Without HarmCompilation of Case Studies on Alternatives to PVC/DEHP in Medical Equipment
Alternatives AssessmentPhthalatesDiisononyl phthalateHealthy Building NetworkPhthalate-free plasticizers in PVC
Alternatives AssessmentCompany profileHewlett-PackardManaging Chemicals of Concern and Designing Safer Products At Hewlett-Packard
Alternatives AssessmentMultipleCompilation of Substitution and Alternatives Assessment Case StudiesIntergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization (WHO)Substitution and Alternatives Case Studies, Examples and Tools
Alternatives AssessmentPlasticizersDi (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP or BzBP), di-butyl sebacate (DBS), dioctyl sebacate (DOS), 2,2,4-trimethyl 1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), O-toluene sulfonamide (OTSA), Tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHPA), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHPA)Lowell Center for Sustainable ProductionPhthalates and their alternatives
Alternatives AssessmentFlame RetardantsDecabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), resorcinol bis diphenyl phosphate (RDP), Bis-phenol A diphosphate (BPADP), antimony trioxide, polyphenylene sulfideLowell Center for Sustainable ProductionDecabromodiphenylether: An Investigation of Non-Halogen Substitutes in Electronic Enclosure and Textile Applications
Alternatives AssessmentPlasticizersPVC, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)Lowell Center for Sustainable ProductionThe Use of Di-2ethylhexyl-Phthalate in PVC Medical Devices: Exposure, Toxicity and Alternatives
Alternatives AssessmentMercuryMercuryLowell Center for Sustainable ProductionReport on the Major Mercury Containing Products and Processes, their Substitutes and Experience in Switching to Mercury-Free Products and Processes
Alternatives AssessmentCompany profileCompilation of descriptions of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsOregon Environmental CouncilGreen Chemistry Innovation Case Studies
Alternatives AssessmentMultipleSearchable database of specific substance chemical hazard/alternatives assessments and company profilesSUBSPORTCase Study Database
Alternatives AssessmentFlame Retardants4,4’‐bishydroxydeoxybenzoin (BHDB), monohydroxydeoxybenzoin (MHDB), cardanolTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Sustainable Routes to Non-Halogenated Flame Retardants Based on Phenolic Monomers
Alternatives AssessmentSolventsPetroleum distillatesTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Substitution Case Study: Alternatives to Solvent and Petroleum-based Inks
Alternatives AssessmentPlasticizers, NanomaterialsPVC, lead, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), epoxidized soybean oil (ESO)TURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Green(er) PVC: The Development of Lead and Phthalate-Free Nanocomposite Formulations with Practical Utility
Alternatives AssessmentMultipleCompilation of case studies related to 1) cleaning, 2) coating and painting, 3) plating and 4) printingTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Toxics Use Reduction for Industrial Processes
Alternatives Assessmentcompany profileCompilation of descriptions of company substitution/alternatives assessment process and impactsTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Case studies
Alternatives AssessmentSolventsPerchloroethylene, n-propyl bromide, DS siloxane, propylene glycol ether, acetal, hydrocarbon solvents, carbon dioxideTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Assessment of Alternatives to Perchloroethylene in the Dry Cleaning Industry
Alternatives AssessmentMultipleCompilation of case studies of 1) chemical specific studies, 2) lead, 3) brominated flame retardants, 4) plasticizers, 5) mercury and 6) sector specific studiesTURI (Toxics Use Reduction Institute)Examples of alternatives assessments
Alternatives AssessmentSolventsLacquer thinner (ink remover), sodium periodate, haze remover (xylene, acetone, mineral spirits, cyclohexanone)U.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE)Chemical Alternatives for Screen Reclaimation
Alternatives AssessmentInk SystemsSolvent- and water-based inks; UV cured inksU.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE)Flexographic Ink Options: A Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment
Chemical Hazard AssessmentFlame Retardants18 different flame retardantsU.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE)Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam: Alternatives Assessment Update
Chemical Hazard AssessmentDetergentsNonylphenol EthoxylatesU.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE) Alternatives Assessment for Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEs)
Chemical Hazard AssessmentFlame RetardantsDecabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE)U.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE)An Alternatives Assessment for the Flame Retardant Decabromodiphenyl Ether (decaBDE)
Alternatives AssessmentFlame RetardantsHexabromocyclododecne (HBCD)U.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE)Flame Retardant Alternatives for Hexabromocyclododecne (HBCD)
Alternatives AssessmentPlasticizersBisphenol A (BPA)U.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE) Bisphenol A Alternatives in Thermal Paper
Alternatives AssessmentChlorinated compoundsPCBsUNECE Task Force on POPsAssessments of Technological Developments for the Production and Use, Including Exemptions, of Substances Listed in Annexes I & II
Alternatives AssessmentPigmentsPCBsWashington State Department of EcologyAlternatives for elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pigments used for printing inks and architectural paints

Toolkits are websites that contain a variety of information related to safer chemical substitutions and alternatives assessments.

Organization Toolkit Name Description
ChemHATChemical Hazard and Alternatives ToolboxAn internet portal containing information about hazardous chemicals and safer alternatives, focusing on workplace safety, and includes a searchable chemical hazard database
ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) and INRS (French Institute for Research and Security)A Tool to Support the Substitution of CMR SubstancesThis French website was developed by ANSES and INRS. This website focuses on CMR chemicals, and is a database for information about these chemicals and a database for chemical alternatives for CMR. The alternatives database is compiled from industry experience, research and data found in the literature.
French National Institute for Industrial Safety and Environment Protection (INERIS)French National Guidance Service on the Substitution of Bisphenol AThis tool is a repository of case studies and of potential alternatives for Bisphenol-based resins and plastics. It was originally intended for helping companies in France to find alternatives to BPA in food contact material and is now widening its scope to other sectors for BPA and other Bisphenols.
Green Chemistry & Commerce Council (GC3)GC3 Retailer PortalA database of tools that enable retailers to evaluate chemicals or chemical-containing products for their potential human health and environmental impacts
Health Care Without HarmNurses Safer Chemicals ToolkitDeveloped by Health Care Without Harm in conjunction with the Nurses Workgroup to address health risks of hazardous chemicals
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)Transitioning to Safer ChemicalsA step-by-step toolkit developed by the OSHA to provide employers and workers with information, methods, tools, and guidance on using informed substitution in the workplace
State of Washington Department of EcologyReducing Toxic Threats InitiativeAs part of its Reducing Toxic Threats Initiative, the Department of Ecology has compiled various sources of information on selecting safer chemical alternatives
SUBSPORTSubstitution Support Portal (SUBSPORT)A web-based portal containing information on substituting safer chemicals for hazardous ones: substitution steps, legislation (EU), hazardous chemical databases, substitution tools and case studies

Product rating systems help consumers and purchasers evaluate the relative safety of different substances.

Organization System Name Description
U.S. EPA's Design for the Environment (DfE) BranchSafer Choice Program The U.S. EPA’s Safer Choice Program helps businesses, consumers, and institutional buyers identify cleaning and other products that have met stringent criteria for health and environmental safety. The Safer Choice label on a product means that the EPA scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that — based on the best currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment — the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. A list of chemicals that have met the Safer Choice standard is available on EPA’s Safer Chemical Ingredient List (SCIL).
Healthy Buildings NetworkPharos ProjectThis data source is for building materials evaluations and is divided into three parts: building materials library, chemical/materials library and certification information. The building materials library contains products that are scored in 5 categories (see Hazard Endpoints) separately (no aggregate score). The chemical and materials library rates each entry on individual health and environmental impacts of throughout their lifecycle (if applicable) – no aggregate score. Also, not every entry contains comprehensive data. Pharos also contains a database of second and third party certifications and identifies building products that have been certified; certification is one criterion in the scoring system.
GreenBlue®CleanGredients®CleanGredients® was developed by GreenBlue® to help cleaning product formulators identify environmentally friendly ingredients and allow manufacturers to showcase their ingredients. CleanGredients® is a subscription-based online database with 12 cleaning product ingredient categories: chelating agents, colorants, defoamers, enzymes, fragrances, oxidants, polymers, preservatives and antioxidants, processing aids, solvents, starter formulations, and surfactants. Non-subscribers have partial access to website information. Ingredient formulation and attribute claims are verified by an approved third-party.
Cradle to Cradle Certified Products RegistryCradle to Cradle Products Innovation InstituteThis tool is a database of products that have been certified as “sustainable” being evaluated against 5 categories. An aggregated score is calculated. The products are ranked using five ranking categories: platinum, gold, silver, bronze and basic for each categorical score. Each of the 5 impact categories are ranked and an overall ranking is calculated.